Jaundice: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Treatment of Jaundice

Why are my eyes yellow

Jaundice is a medical term that is typically characterized by yellowish discolouration of the skin, mucous membrane layers, and the white part of the eye due to increased bilirubin in the blood. A bilirubin examination gauges the amount of bilirubin in your blood. Increased levels indicate jaundice, the cause could be any. Taken into consideration more like an underlying signs and symptom than an illness, jaundice can quickly occur because of a swollen liver or blocked bile duct or any other cause.

Bilirubin is an orange-yellow pigment that is released when part of your red cell break down. Your liver takes the bilirubin from your blood and also transforms its chemical make-up to make sure that the majority of it is gone through your poop as bile.

If your bilirubin levels are higher than typical, it’s an indicator that either your red cell are breaking down at an unusual rate or that your liver isn’t breaking down waste appropriately and getting rid of the bilirubin from your blood.

The third reason could be that there’s a problem somewhere along the pathway that carries the bilirubin out of your liver, into the intestine and gallbladder (for storage only) and then throw it out through your stool. Now you know why your stools are yellow.

Causes of Jaundice

As explained above, jaundice can occur because of three reasons and many causes. To comprehend the appropriate kind of jaundice, one ought to initially acknowledge the issue which triggers interruption in the production of bilirubin and its transport.

Pre-Hepatic causes of jaundice (when more red blood cells are being destroyed)

This sort of Jaundice can occur when there in rapid destruction as well as break down of red cell, generally due to haemolysis and thus liver is unable to eliminate the excess bilirubin from the blood. This sort of jaundice happens because of conditions like:
• Thalassemia
• Spherocytosis
• Malaria
• Sickle cell situation
• Autoimmune problems
• Medicines
• Other toxic substances like some mushrooms etc

Hepatic causes of jaundice (diseases of the liver)

In this situation, jaundice takes place due to the malfunctioning of the liver or its capacity to metabolise and also secrete bilirubin. It takes place because of conditions like:
• Cirrhosis
• Viral Hepatitis
• Alcoholic hepatitis
• Primary liver tumours
• Secondary liver cancer (tumour spread from cancer of some other organ) like rectal cancer
• Gilbert’s syndrome
• Crigler-Najjar disorder
• Medications
• Poisonous materials

Post-Hepatic causes of jaundice (when the transport of bilirubin is interrupted)

Also called as Obstructive Jaundice, here, jaundice takes place when there is an abnormality that causes an interruption in the bile drainage from the liver to the intestinal tracts. It is also called Surgical Jaundice, as surgery can help treat the causes of this type of jaundice. This happens due to conditions like:
• Pancreatitis
• Strictures of the bile duct
Gallstones in the bile duct
• Cholangitis
• Congenital malformations
• Parasitical intrusion
• Cancerous tumours in the surrounding organs as well as pancreas, gall bladder or bile duct.

Neonatal Jaundice:

New-born jaundice is quite typical and also commonly taken into consideration as a regular physiological effect as a result of the new-borns immature liver. If it is not dealt with on time, the bilirubin degrees could elevate and also lead to various other health and wellness anomalies and also create serious brain damage recognized as kernicterus. It mostly occurs as a result of:
• Physiological jaundice
• Breast milk jaundice
• Maternal foetal blood group mismatch
• Cephalohematoma
• Nursing jaundice.

Signs of Jaundice

The typical signs and symptoms of jaundice normally consist of a yellow-coloured or brownish-orange shade of skin, eyes, body liquids like pee and stool. Other signs and symptoms as a result of the causative aspects consist of:

  • Nausea or vomiting and throwing up
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fever as well as rigors and chills
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal discomfort as well as pain
  • General debility
  • Weight loss
  • Headache
  • Swelling of the legs and also abdomen
  • Skin Itching

Diagnosis cause of of Jaundice

The physician generally does a detailed physical exam of the skin as well as eyes as well as recognize the client’s past medical history to comprehend the kind and also root cause of jaundice. The doctor may also carry out a series of tests including:

  • Liver blood tests like Bilirubin examination, to determine the amount of bilirubin in your blood,
  • Complete blood count (CBC).
  • Blood examinations to examine lipase
  • Electrolyte panel.
  • Urine test.
  • Other Liver tests.
  • Imaging methods like ultrasound, CT check, MRI, Cholescintigraphy, as well as Endoscopic Retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to analyse the problem of the liver and bile ducts.
  • A biopsy is additionally done to check for cancerous cells.

Treatment of jaundice

Treatment choices for jaundice basically depends upon the causing disease. In acute viral hepatitis which are uncomplicated, the person can get well with a couple of medications as well as rest at home. Various other conditions might require therapy with intravenous fluids, anti-biotics, and blood transfusions.

In obstructive jaundice, the doctor may also call for definitive surgery and remove the obstructing cause or bypass obstruction. Endoscopic stenting can also be used where surgery is not possible. In patients with secondary tumours of liver, chemotherapy of the primary tumour can help reduce the liver lesions and jaundice gets resolved.


Jaundice is a symptom which can occur in many diseases. It’s important to investigate to find the causing disease and deal with it. Diseases causing obstructive jaundice will require surgeons expertise. Whenever one suspects jaundice, it is wise to consult your doctor and get the appropriate tests done. If ignored, jaundice leads to liver failure and possible mortality.

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